Among the Muslim philosophers who lived in the Middle Ages Ibn Khaldun is the philosopher, on whom people have chewed over, discussed and wrote about the most. The most problematic part of the thoughts and researches on Ibn Khaldun is the temptation to identify this philosopher, scribe, and historian, who deceased at the beginning of the fourteenth century, with today’s criteria and concepts. Most probably that is why he is considered to be the founder of the science of sociology, the initiator of the modern historiography and even an early period philosopher. This book opens these hasty, preconceived opinions for discussion by taking Ibn Khaldun’s life, the conditions in which he was raised, the historical events at his time, his state of mind and works into consideration. This book fills a serious gap as Ibn Khaldun frequently becomes a subject of debate in our country and since academic circles are always hungry for his works.